His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the only daughter of Napoleon's wife Joséphine de Beauharnais by her first marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais. The Austrians had been driven from Lombardy, but the army of General Giulay remained in the region of Venice. In international policy, he tried to emulate his uncle, with numerous imperial ventures around the world, as well as wars in Europe. On 15 June, the Prussian Army invaded Saxony, an ally of Austria. Louis Napoleon's government imposed new authoritarian measures to control dissent and reduce the power of the opposition. A crowd of 15,000–20,000 persons, carrying flags and patriotic banners, marched through the streets of Paris, demanding war. [8], Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), the younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, the King of Holland, and father of Napoleon III, Hortense de Beauharnais (1783–1837), mother to Louis Napoleon in 1808, The lakeside house at Arenenberg, Switzerland, where Louis Napoleon spent much of his youth and exile, When Louis Napoleon was fifteen, his mother Hortense moved to Rome, where the Bonapartes had a villa. If I am right, then providence will put me into a position to fulfill my mission. Le 2 décembre 1852, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte devient l'Empereur Napoléon III . There will be time later to discuss them. Napoleon III began his regime by launching a series of enormous public works projects in Paris, hiring tens of thousands of workers to improve the sanitation, water supply and traffic circulation of the city. Of eight million eligible voters, 5,200,000 votes went to the official candidates and 800,000 to opposition candidates. The National Guard, whose members had sometimes joined anti-government demonstrations, was re-organized and largely used only in parades. He strolled in Hyde Park, which he later used as a model when he created the Bois de Boulogne in Paris. At the beginning of May, the Emperor and court moved to the Château de Saint-Cloud for outdoor activities in the park. [169], On 27 November, Napoleon composed a memorandum to Bismarck that raised the possibility that the Prussian King might urge the French people to recall him as Emperor after a peace treaty was signed and Paris surrendered. In the early years of the Empire, the economy also benefited from the coming of age of those born during the baby boom of the Restoration period. The Empress occupied a suite of rooms just above his, highly decorated in the style of Louis XVI with a pink salon, a green salon and a blue salon. ACHAT 10F OR NAPOLEON. [40] This new election law was passed in May 1850 by a majority of 433 to 241, putting the National Assembly on a direct collision course with the Prince-President. _ Etat de conservation :TTB+. [134], Despite his failing health, Napoleon III could see that the Prussian Army, combined with the armies of Bavaria and the other German states, would be a formidable enemy. Inscription : NAPOLEON III EMPEREUR BARRE . D'une pièce de 2 centimes à une pièce de 5 francs en passant par une pièce de 10 centimes ou de 2 francs : vous découvrez un choix conséquent de monnaies de toutes époques. p.238, History of the XIX century (1848-1871). He is given high credits for the rebuilding of Paris with broad boulevards, striking public buildings, and very attractive residential districts for upscale Parisians. In this he was influenced by his uncle's policy as described in the Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène. "[161], Finally, at one o'clock in the afternoon, Napoleon emerged from his reverie and ordered a white flag hoisted above the citadel. Second Empire (1852-1870), 1 Franc Napoléon III tête nue 1856 D (Lyon), Gadoury 460, KM 779.3 (Monnaies>Semi Modernes (1805-1899)>1 Franc) Gadoury : 460 , KM : 779.3 Qualité de la monnaie : TB Pays : France Métal : Argent Valeur faciale : Franc Atelier : Lyon Année : 1856 Type The British government was suspicious that Napoleon wanted to take over Belgium and Luxembourg, felt secure with its powerful navy, and did not want any military engagements on the European continent at the side of the French. Adolphe Thiers recommended that he wear clothing of "democratic simplicity," but, following the model of his uncle, he chose instead the uniform of the General-in-Chief of the National Guard, and chose the title of "Prince-President". He wrote to Lamartine announcing his arrival, saying that he "was without any other ambition than that of serving my country". p. 134, David Brown, "Palmerston and Anglo–French Relations, 1846–1865,", Jonathan Philip Parry, "The impact of Napoleon III on British politics, 1851–1880. France. Cambridge University Press. [122], The average salary of French workers grew by 45 percent during the Second Empire, but only kept up with price inflation. The prefecture was seized, and the prefect arrested. Achat immédiat +3,00 EUR (livraison) Nouvelle annonce Dix Centimes 1856 BB Napoléon III Strasbourg . Following the defeat of Austria, Napoleon resumed his search for allies against Prussia. Bismarck saw Austria and France as the main obstacles to his ambitions, and he set out to divide and defeat them. A group of conspirators threw three bombs at the royal carriage as it made its way to the opera. Louis Napoleon's goal was to move from despotism to parliamentary government without a revolution, but instead he was a moderate increasingly trapped between the royalist and radical extremes. His close advisors urged him to stay and try to take power, but he wanted to show his prudence and loyalty to the Republic; while his advisors remained in Paris, he returned to London on 2 March 1848 and watched events from there. Expeditions to distant corners of the world and the expansion of the Empire replaced major changes in the map of Europe. Deutsch. Son poids est de 3,22 grammes pour un titrage de 900‰. Temps restant Il reste 6 j 23 h. 0 enchères No newspaper dealing with political or social questions could be published without the permission of the government, fines were increased, and the list of press offenses was expanded. Leopold, solicited by both his father and Bismarck, agreed. Officers and their respective units were unable to find one-another. Huge crowds had gathered in Paris on 15 December 1840 when the remains of Napoleon Bonaparte were returned with great ceremony to Paris and handed over to Louis Napoleon's old enemy, King Louis-Philippe, while Louis Napoleon could only read about it in prison. He planned for his uprising to begin in Strasbourg. In any war between France and Prussia, France would be entirely alone. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce." Strode had also received money from the Emperor, possibly to buy Camden Place and maintain it as a bolt hole. [154], When the news of the French defeats reached Paris on 7 August, it was greeted with disbelief and dismay. Le Napoléon étant une pièce de 20 francs or, les pièces de 10 francs or 1856 ont logiquement été baptisées « demi-Napoléon ». The government was attacked by both the republicans and monarchist opposition, and by the ultra-Bonapartists, for its weakness against Prussia. Victor Hugo portrayed him as "Napoleon the Small" (Napoléon le Petit), a mere mediocrity, in contrast with Napoleon I "The Great", presented as a military and administrative genius. The previous government had sent an expeditionary force, which had been tasked and funded by the National Assembly to support the republican forces in Italy against the Austrians and against the Pope. Napoleon III still hoped to receive some compensation from Prussia for French neutrality during the war. His forces greatly outnumbered the Piedmontese army at Turin, but he hesitated, allowing the French and Piedmontese to unite their forces. An Emperor does not capitulate! He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor, reigning until the defeat of the French Army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Bismarck refused to acknowledge the former empress, as this had caused irritations with Britain and Russia. He was accompanied by his companion, Harriet Howard, who gave him a large loan to help finance his campaign. Throughout his reign, the emperor worked to alleviate the sufferings of the poor, on occasion breaching the 19th-century economic orthodoxy of freedom and laissez-faire and using state resources or interfering in the market. Là ou un Napoléon louis d’or 20 francs mesure 21mm pour un poids de 6,45161g, le demi Louis d’or mesure 19mm pour un poids de 3,23g. He won 5,572,834 votes, or 74.2 percent of votes cast, compared with 1,469,156 for Cavaignac. In exchange, Napoleon III asked for Savoy (the ancestral land of the King of Piedmont-Sardinia) and the then bilingual county of Nice, which had been taken from France after Napoleon's fall in 1815 and given to Piedmont-Sardinia. Napoleon III returned to Paris on 17 July, and a huge parade and celebration were held on 14 August, in front of the Vendôme column, the symbol of the glory of Napoleon I. Napoleon III celebrated the day by granting a general amnesty to the political prisoners and exiles he had chased from France.[96]. Napoléon III , tête nue. Après une enfance heureuse, choyé par un père qui l’adorait et qu’il adorait, fêté, chaque fois qu’il sortait, par le peuple de Paris qui depuis…, accueilli avec des transports d’enthousiasme par la Lorraine et par la Corse quand il les avait visitées avec sa mère, il avait été brusquement précipité dans la guerre. He was pale and visibly in pain. [178] Among his numerous love affairs and mistresses were as follows:[179], His wife, Eugénie, resisted his advances prior to marriage. Auteur(s): Barre, Albert-Désiré (Paris, 06–05–1818 - 29–12–1878), graveur en médailles. Il est mort le 9 janvier 1873. E-Franc. The presence of Hortense and Louis Napoleon in the hotel had become known, and a public demonstration of mourning for the Emperor took place on Place Vendôme in front of their hotel. 2 visuels Voir. He approached Lord Derby, the British Prime Minister, and the British Government; Britain was against the war, but agreed to remain neutral. Aujourd'hui sur Rakuten, 3573 Napoleon 3 1856 vous attendent au sein de notre rayon . Triez par : Le moins cher- Le plus cher- A à Z- Z à A- Nouveautés; 20 Francs Or Napoléon III Tête Laurée. [79], Lord Palmerston as Britain's foreign minister and prime minister had close personal ties with leading French statesmen, notably Napoleon III himself. Elle se décline en différents types. Pièce de 10 centimes Napoléon III ( tête nue ) - 1852 à 1857 . : Vso5-1479 - Prix : 50.00 € 5 francs Napoléon III - tête nue 1856 A (Paris) Réf. Results were announced on 20 December. [37] To please the radical republicans, he asked the Pope to introduce liberal reforms and the Code Napoleon to the Papal States. Pièce de 5 centimes Napoléon III tête nue . [54] The 1851 referendum also gave Louis-Napoleon a mandate to amend the constitution. 3. It was long and bloody, and the French center was exhausted and nearly broken, but the battle was finally won by a timely attack on the Austrian flank by the soldiers of General MacMahon. The Italians responded by demanding that France withdraw its troops who were protecting the Pope in Rome. After his escape from prison, he had a brief affair with Rachel (1823–1858), the most famous French actress of the time, during her London tours. Dates: En 1856. Count Cavour died a few weeks later, declaring that "Italy is made."[98]. In the summer of 1840 he bought weapons and uniforms and had proclamations printed, gathered a contingent of about sixty armed men, hired a ship called the Edinburgh-Castle, and on 6 August 1840, sailed across the Channel to the port of Boulogne. [72], Napoleon III's new parks were inspired by his memories of the parks in London, especially Hyde Park, where he had strolled and promenaded in a carriage while in exile; but he wanted to build on a much larger scale. 20 Francs 1863 Napoléon III (1852-1870) - € 300 Voir ce lot. He was received by Queen Victoria, who also visited him at Chislehurst. These also were criticized by the Catholic Church. Titre en millième : 900 ‰ Diamètre : 28 mm. The Krupp guns caused terrible casualties in the French ranks. On 2 July, four eminent French doctors, Nélaton, Ricord, Fauvel and Corvisart, examined him and confirmed the diagnosis. He had lived there while in exile and saw Britain as a natural partner in the projects he wished to accomplish. [131], In October 1865, Napoleon had a cordial meeting with Bismarck at Biarritz. U ( Usée ): La monnaie est assez usée avec des rayures qui se remarquent. Napoléon 3, 5 Francs argent écu 1856 france. … His proposal was opposed by many French officers, such as Marshal Randon, who preferred a smaller, more professional army; he said: "This proposal will only give us recruits; it's soldiers we need. Napoleon continued to write political tracts and letters and dreamed of a return to power. [22] This book was widely reprinted and circulated in France, and played an important part in his future electoral success. Non disponible. The war had two important diplomatic consequences: Alexander II became an ally of France, and Britain and France were reconciled. "Bismarck had bought Tsar Alexander II’s complicity by promising to help restore his naval access to the Black Sea and Mediterranean (cut off by the treaties ending the Crimean War), other powers were less biddable". He alone was given the authority to declare war, sign treaties, form alliances and initiate laws. "[15] He had seen the popular enthusiasm for Napoleon Bonaparte when he was in Paris, and he was convinced that, if he marched to Paris, as Napoleon Bonaparte had done in 1815 during the Hundred Days, France would rise up and join him. What is the necessity? The architect, Charles Garnier, described the style simply as "Napoleon the Third". They began to live together, she took in his two illegitimate children and raised them with her own son, and she provided financing for his political plans so that, when the moment came, he could return to France.[24]. [83], From the start of his Empire, Napoleon III sought an alliance with Britain. Cavour angrily resigned his post. The vote in July 1851 was 446 to 278 in favor of changing the law and allowing him to run again, but this was short of the two-thirds majority needed to amend the constitution. Similar agreements were negotiated with the Netherlands, Italy, and France's other neighbors. Volume 5. pieces-et-billets-de-co. centimes napoléon iii . This allowed Bismarck and Prussia to present the war to the world as defensive, although Prussia and Bismarck had aggressive plans, and they soon became known in relation to the annexation of the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. The new government of Spain considered several candidates, including Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern, a cousin of King Wilhelm I of Prussia. He began with small projects, such as opening up two clinics in Paris for sick and injured workers, a program of legal assistance to those unable to afford it, and subsidies to companies that built low-cost housing for their workers. He began to plan a coup against King Louis-Philippe. About one third of the eligible voters abstained. He installed a large map of Paris in a central position in his office, and he and Haussmann planned the new Paris.[68]. [117], At the university level, Napoleon III founded new faculties in Marseille, Douai, Nancy, Clermont-Ferrand and Poitiers and founded a network of research institutes of higher studies in the sciences, history, and economics. It was opened by the Empress Eugénie with a performance of Verdi's opera Aida. 5 centimes 1856 A Napoléon 3. ], By his late forties, Napoleon started to suffer from numerous medical ailments, including kidney disease, bladder stones, chronic bladder and prostate infections, arthritis, gout, obesity, and the chronic effects of smoking. ACHAT 10F OR NAPOLEON. [128], The health problems of the Emperor were kept secret by the government, which feared that, if his condition became public, the opposition would demand his abdication. Napoleon demanded to know. Lombardy had been freed, but Venetia (the Venice region) was still controlled by the Austrians, and the Pope was still the ruler of Rome and Central Italy. The mutineers surrendered and Louis-Napoleon fled back to Switzerland.[16]. More important for his future career, he had an affair with the wealthy heiress Harriet Howard (1823–1865). His election manifesto proclaimed his support for "religion, family, property, the eternal basis of all social order". [170] A last initiative of Eugénie failed in January, because of the late arrival of her envoy from London. He passed his time learning Italian, exploring the ancient ruins, and learning the arts of seduction and romantic affairs, which he used often in his later life. Later, however, to appease fervent French Catholics, he sent soldiers to defend the residual Papal States against annexation by Italy.[77][78]. Garibaldi made another attempt to capture Rome in November 1867, but was defeated by the French and Papal troops near the town of Mentana on 3 November 1867. While the paintings were ridiculed by many critics and visitors, the work of the avant-garde became known for the first time to the French public, and it took its place alongside the more traditional style of painting.[112]. CC0 Télécharger. – seine Nachkommen (Descendants) – Nachkomme, Descendant Napoleon III", "Les enfants de Napoléon et Eléonore Vergeot", Marie-Clotilde-Elisabeth Louise de Riquet, comtesse de Mercy-Argenteau, Place de la Revolution, Béziers & Napoleon 111, Maps of Europe covering the reign of Napoleon III (omniatlas), Zénaïde, Princess of Canino and Musignano, Charles Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano, Napoléon Charles, Prince Royal of Holland, Jérôme Napoléon Charles, Prince of Montfort, Joseph Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano, Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte, Prince of Canino and Musignano, Napoléon Charles, Prince of Canino and Musignano, Jeanne, Marchioness of Villeneuve-Escaplon, Marie, Princess George of Greece and Denmark, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Napoleon_III&oldid=998357854, Bonapartist pretenders to the French throne, French prisoners of war in the 19th century, Monarchs imprisoned and detained during war, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit, Knights of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (Württemberg), Recipients of the House Order of Fidelity, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion, Grand Cordons of the Order of the Lion and the Sun, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Southern Cross, Grand Crosses of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, Knights Grand Cross of the Military Order of Savoy, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Pope Pius IX, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint-Charles, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Joseph, Knights Grand Cross of the Military Order of William, Recipients of the Order of the Black Eagle, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Red Eagle, Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order, Recipients of the Order of the White Falcon, Recipients of the Order of the White Eagle (Russia), Recipients of the Order of St. Anna, 1st class, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Tower and Sword, Grand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal), Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword, Recipients of the Order of the Medjidie, 1st class, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles containing unlinked shortened footnotes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Maria Anna Schiess (1812–1880), of Allensbach (Lake Constance, Germany), mother of his son Bonaventur Karrer (1839–1921), Alexandrine Éléonore Vergeot, laundress at the prison at, 20 April 1808 – 9 July 1810: His Imperial and Royal Highness Prince Louis-Napoléon of France, Prince of Holland, 20 April 1808 – 20 December 1848: His Imperial Highness Prince Louis-Napoléon of France, 20 December 1848 – 2 December 1852: His Imperial Highness The Prince-President of the French Republic (", 2 December 1852 – 1 March 1871: His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of the French, 1 March 1871 – 9 January 1873: His Imperial Majesty Napoléon III, Napoleon III wrote a number of articles on military matters (artillery), scientific issues (, Spitzer, Alan B. Work began on the new document in 1852. His greatest achievements came in material improvements, in the form of a grand railway network that facilitated commerce and tied the nation together and centered it on Paris. To direct this task, he named a new prefect of the Seine department, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, and gave him extraordinary powers to rebuild the center of the city. Bismarck swiftly intervened and showed the British ambassador a copy of Napoleon's demands; as a result, he put pressure on William III to refuse to sell Luxembourg to France. Ville. The King of Piedmont-Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel II, was invited to Paris in November 1855, and given the same royal treatment as Queen Victoria. From there, on 7 September, she took the yacht of a British official to England. At six o'clock in the morning on 2 September, in the uniform of a general and accompanied by four generals from his staff, Napoleon was taken to the German headquarters at Donchery. He contributed articles to regional newspapers and magazines in towns all over France, becoming quite well known as a writer. However, it was in personal union with the Netherlands. Under Article Two, the president could now serve an unlimited number of 10-year terms. View item He was swiftly dethroned and the French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris. [44] On 3 December, writer Victor Hugo and a few other republicans tried to organize an opposition to the coup. La collection idéale. ", Alan B. Spitzer, "The Good Napoleon III.". Graveur : Désiré-Albert Barre. In April 1855, Napoleon III and Eugénie went to England and were received by the Queen; in turn, Victoria and Prince Albert visited Paris. [175], Napoleon was originally buried at St Mary's, the Catholic Church in Chislehurst. View item SAIVE (France) France: 5 Francs 1850K Napoleon III 1852-1870 Very Fine-153.24 US$ + 24.52 US$ shipping. On 2 July, Austria asked Napoleon to arrange an armistice between Italy, which had allied itself with Prussia, and Austria, in exchange for which France would receive Venetia. Retrouvez la valeur de votre monnaide de 5 Francs NAPOLÉON III, TÊTE NUE dans le e … Chin: pointed. Certaines ont été fabriquées à des milliers d'exemplaires, d'autres à des centaines seulement ce qui leur donne évidemment beaucoup plus de valeur. A doctor accompanying him wrote in his notebook, "If this man has not come here to kill himself, I don't know what he has come to do. After an implausible 97 percent voted in favour (7,824,129 votes for and 253,159 against, with two million abstentions), on 2 December 1852—exactly one year after the coup—the Second Republic was officially ended, replaced by the Second French Empire. Retrouvez la Cotation et Valeur de la pièce de 20 Francs or Napoléon 3 1856 atelier BB. Louis Napoleon also began writing about his political philosophy – for as H. A. L. Fisher suggested, "the programme of the Empire was not the improvisation of a vulgar adventurer" but the result of deep reflection on the Napoleonic political philosophy and on how to adjust it to the changed domestic and international scenes. The Empress remained in Paris as the Regent, as she had done on other occasions when the Emperor was out of the country. The French won a minor skirmish and advanced no further. His campaign agents, many of them veterans from Napoleon Bonaparte's army, raised support for him around the country. France was forced to renounce any claim to Luxembourg in the Treaty of London (1867). Fortunately for Napoleon and the Piedmontese, the commander of the Austrians, General Giulay, was not very aggressive. Because of the weakening of the French position overall, Bismarck lost interest in this option. He was put on trial, where, despite an eloquent defense of his cause, he was sentenced to life in prison in the fortress of Ham in the Somme department of northern France. In Italy, even without the French army, the process of Italian unification launched by Cavour and Napoleon III took on a momentum of its own. Par exemple, les pièces en or ont un titre de 900 0/00 ; ce qui signifie qu’elles contiennent 90 % d’or pur. 20 Francs en or - Napoléon III Tête nue 1860 BB En Attente De Stock. The last recorded famine in France was in 1855. ... 20 FRANCS OR NAPOLEON III TETE NUE 1856 A, gravé par Albert-Désiré Barre. Type(s) d'objet(s): Numismatique. [125][126], Despite the opposition in the legislature, Napoleon III's reforms remained popular in the rest of the country. France's industries were forced to modernize and become more efficient to compete with the British, as Napoleon III had intended. As Cavour had promised, Savoy and the county of Nice were annexed by France in 1860 after referendums, although it is disputed how fair they were. Elles sont souvent confondues avec le Louis d'or dont elles ont la même valeur. La pièce de 10 Francs Napoléon III non lauré est également appelée 10 Francs Napoléon III « tête nue ». Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected. At five o'clock in the morning on 1 September, a German shell seriously wounded MacMahon in the hip. On 1 February 1861, further reforms were announced: Deputies could speak from the tribune, not just from their seats, and a stenographic record would be made and published of each session. In 1866, Prussia, with a population of 22 million, had been able to mobilize an army of 700,000 men, while France, with a population of 26 million, had an army of only 385,000 men, of whom 140,000 were in Algeria, Mexico, and Rome. Toutes les valeurs sont disponibles en quelques clics. He was reunited with his older brother Napoléon-Louis, and together they became involved with the Carbonari, secret revolutionary societies fighting Austria's domination of northern Italy. France took the bait and declared war on Prussia.[145]. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. The first department store, Bon Marché, opened in Paris in 1852 in a modest building and expanded rapidly, its income increasing from 450,000 francs a year to 20 million. Colonisation française de l'Algérie et voyage de Napoléon III en 1865] (1856) Famille impériale (France - 1856) (1856) [Recueil. Delivery: 7 - 10 days. D'Allonville's cavalry patrolled Paris during Napoleon's 1851 coup. 20 Francs Or Napoléon III Tête Nue 1853-1860. He hurried as quickly as he could back to Switzerland. [10], Hortense and Louis Napoleon travelled incognito to Paris, where the old regime of King Charles X had just fallen and been replaced by the more liberal regime of King Louis Philippe I. Translated by D. Siefkin, Theodore Zeldin, "The Myth of Napoleon III", Speech of 9 October in Bordeaux, published in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPlessis1989 (, Jarrasse, Dominque (2007), Grammmaire des jardins Parisiens, Parigramme.