The annexed area consisted of the northern part of Lorraine, along with Alsace. Six months later, on July 15, 1915, German became the only official language in the region,[11] leading to the Germanization of the towns’ names effective September 2, 1915. News concours SEO. The streets are infested with informers, men and women, who touch rewards and make arrest the passers by for a simple "merci" said in French. The three Israelite consistories in Colmar [de], Metz [de] and Strasbourg [de] were disentangled from supervision by the Israelite Central Consistory of France and continued as separate statutory corporations which never formed a joint body, but cooperated. The border between 1871 and 1918 is shown in yellow. [note 2] In 1900, 11.6% of the population of Alsace-Lorraine spoke French as their first language (11.0% in 1905, 10.9% in 1910). For each location, ViaMichelin city maps allow you to display classic mapping elements (names and types of streets and roads) as well as more detailed information: pedestrian streets, building numbers, one-way streets, administrative buildings, the main local landmarks (town hall, station, post office, theatres, etc. [note 4]. Romance dialects (belonging to the langues d'oïl like French): Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}48°40′N 7°00′E / 48.67°N 7°E / 48.67; 7, Territory created by the German Empire in 1871, An instruction dated 1920-08-14 from the assistant Secretary of State of the Presidency of the Council to the General Commissioner of the Republic in Strasbourg reminds that the term, The linguistic border ran on the north of the new border, including in the "Alemannic" territories, As of on October 26, 1914, we can read in Spindler's journal: "Then he recommends to me not to speak French. Auteur du texte IMPRIMERIES RÉUNIES DE STRASBOURG (Strasbourg. 03-89-62-43-00).It’s a reconstructed turn-of-the-20th-century Alsatian village of over 70 buildings, including houses, … Împachetare cadou gratuită! As soon as war was declared, both the French and German authorities used the inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine as propaganda pawns. Ultimately, 100,000 Alsatians and 30,000 Mosellans were enrolled, many of them to fight on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Red Army. The new border between France and Germany mainly followed the geolinguistic divide between French and German dialects, except in a few valleys of the Alsatian side of the Vosges mountains, the city of Metz and its region and in the area of Château-Salins (formerly in the Meurthe département), which were annexed by Germany although most people there spoke French. Alsace-Lorraine had a land area of 14,496 km2 (5,597 sq mi). [citation needed], Germans living in France were arrested and placed into camps by the French authorities. Ai întrebări? The domestic politics in the new Reich may have been decisive. The Reichsland governor stated in February 1918: "Sympathies towards France and repulsion for Germans have penetrated to a frightening depth the petty bourgeoisie and the peasantry". The regions of Alsace and Lorraine in the north east of France are perfect partners and share a taste for a genial outlook on life. Nature lovers can explore top areas such as Lac de Gérardmer and Kaiserstuhl. CARTE ROUTIERE ALSACE LORRAINE … As a consequence, Alsace-Lorraine developed a strong “home rule” movement in the 1920s and unsuccessfully sought autonomy within the French Republic. "[7] The Saverne Affair (usually known in English-language accounts as the Zabern Affair), in which abusive and oppressive behaviour by the military towards the population of the town of Saverne led to protests not just in Alsace but in other regions, put a severe strain on the relationship between the people of Alsace-Lorraine and the rest of the German Empire. German nationalism on the other hand, which in its 19th century form originated as a reaction against the French occupation of large areas of Germany under Napoleon, sought to unify all the German-speaking populations of the former Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation into a single nation-state. 4.". Alsace Lorraine departments evolution map-cs.svg 600 × 450; 303 KB Deutsches Reich (Karte) Elsaß-Lothringen.svg 650 × 545; 1.04 MB Dialectes d'Alsace-Lorraine au XIXe siècle.png 1,435 × 1,408; 420 KB The evacuation was aimed at providing space for military operations and for protecting citizens from attack. Alsace-Lorraine, German Elsass-Lothringen, area comprising the present French départements of Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin, and Moselle. Enjoy the cafés and restaurants or perhaps you'll want to book a sightseeing tour during your stay. The Alsace-Lorraine region of present-day France has "belonged" to both France and Germany in the past. I am Claudio, and it is my pleasure to accompany you as you experience the historic cities of France. It is unnecessary to go into the unholy consequences." Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google Maps. The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (German: Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen; Alsatian: 's Rìchslànd Elsàss-Lothrìnga; Moselle Franconian/Luxembourgish: D'Räichland Elsass-Loutrengen) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871 after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. The German military feared French partisans – or francs-tireurs, as they had been called during the Franco-Prussian War – would reappear. Painting by Albert Bettannier, a native of Metz who fled to Paris after the annexation of his hometown, Map of Alsace-Lorraine and around, with German placenames, published in 1887, In 1871, the newly created German Empire's demand for Alsace from France after its victory in the Franco-Prussian War was not simply a punitive measure. Linguistically, the German dialect known as Alsatian remains the lingua franca of the region, and both French and German are taught in the schools. Roseraie de Saverne. Her kan man cykle langs med kanalerne til Colmar og hen over Strasbourgs overdækkede broer. The Vallée de Munster, northeast of the park, is one of the region's loveliest valleys. ISBN: 9782067135246. Upon occupying certain villages, veterans of the 1870 conflict were sought out and arrested by the French army.[9]. Alsace-Lorraine is a romantic destination distinct for its cathedral and historical sites. Early in World War II, the collapse of France in 1940 was followed by the second German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, which was again returned to France in 1945. In relation to its special legal status, since its reversion to France following World War I, the territory has been referred to administratively as Alsace-Moselle (Alsatian: 's Elsàss-Mosel). In the general revolutionary atmosphere of the expiring German Empire, Marxist councils of workers and soldiers (Soldaten und Arbeiterräte) formed in Mulhouse, in Colmar and Strasbourg in November 1918, in parallel to other such bodies set up in Germany, in imitation of the Russian equivalent soviets. Only the département of Meurthe changed its name and became Meurthe-et-Moselle after the border changes. ISSN: 0037-2560: OCLC Number: 10663241: Notes: At head of title: Université de Strasbourg. Louis-Frédéric Schützenberger's The Exodus (1872), depicting Alsatians leaving newly annexed Alsace for France. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. in Róisín Healy and Enrico Dal Lago, eds. « Die Erfindung des Grenzlandes Elsass-Lothringen », in: Burkhard Olschowsky (ed. In the new Empire's constitution, both states, but especially Bavaria, had been given concessions with regard to local autonomy, including partial control of their military forces. Université de Strasbourg. Échelle(s) : 1:200 000Appartient à l’ensemble documentaire : Alsace Topics: Alsace, Province d', Lorraine, Province de . Speaking Alsatian, Lorraine Franconian or French was prohibited under German occupation, and learning German was obligatory. Prohibiting the speaking of French in public further increased the exasperation of some of the natives, who were long accustomed to mixing their conversation with French language (see code-switching); still, the use even of one word, as innocent as "bonjour", could incur a fine. The sentiment of attachment to France stayed strong at least during the first 16 years of the annexation. All the mentioned religious bodies retained the status as établissements publics de culte (public bodies of Religion). This is a beautiful example of Rigobert Bonne's 1771 decorative map of the French winemaking regions of Alsace and Lorraine. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) concluding that war gave control of Alsace-Lorraine to France. CARTE ROUTIERE ALSACE LORRAINE HR 2009 (CARTES (6800)) (French Edition) on Amazon.com. Since 2016, the historical territory is now part of the French administrative region of Grand Est. in Charles K. Warner, ed., Alain Denizot - (1996) - "Guerre mondiale, 1914-1918 - Campagnes et batailles" 67-68. The German Emperor, Wilhelm I, eventually sided with army commander Helmuth von Moltke, other Prussian generals and other officials who argued that a westward shift in the French border was necessary for strategic military and ethnographic reasons. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. On 1 September 1939 the population of Alsace and Moselle living in the Franco-German border region were evacuated. We Germans who know Germany and France know better what is good for the Alsatians than the unfortunates themselves. The French Government immediately started a Francization campaign that included the forced deportation of all Germans who had settled in the area after 1870. Under the German Empire of 1871–1918, the annexed territory constituted the Reichsland or Imperial Territory of Elsaß-Lothringen (German for Alsace-Lorraine). [16][17] German-language Alsatian newspapers were also suppressed and all place names were francizised (e.g., Straßburg → Strasbourg, Mülhausen → Mulhouse, Schlettstadt → Sélestat, etc.). The town of Montbéliard and its surrounding area to the south of Belfort, which have been part of the Doubs department since 1816, and therefore were not considered part of Alsace, were not included, although they were a Protestant enclave, as it belonged to Württemberg from 1397 to 1806. Find tours through Alsace and Lorraine. Frederic H. Seager, "The Alsace-Lorraine Question in France, 1871-1914." Thereafter, especially with the grant of a constitution in 1911, some progress was made toward Germanization in the region. Signalements de PAN/OVNI et phénomènes annexes pour la Lorraine, l'Alsace et les pays limitrophes (Luxembourg, Belgique, Allemagne). Moreover, its population was initially enthusiastic over the new French republic, and German rule remained unpopular for some years among the inhabitants, who continued to protest the German annexation. For centuries, Alsace-Lorraine was a major topic of conflict between France and Germany, as both countries claimed the region as its own. The Treaty of Frankfurt gave the residents of the region until October 1, 1872, to choose between emigrating to France or remaining in the region and having their nationality legally changed to German. As recently as the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, these states had been Prussia's enemies. carte alsace lorraine. What is now known as Alsace was progressively conquered by France under Louis XIII and Louis XIV in the 17th century, while Lorraine was incorporated from the 16th century under Henry II to the 18th century under Louis XV[1] (in the case of the Three Bishoprics, as early as 1552). The département Meurthe-et-Moselle was maintained even after France recovered Alsace-Lorraine in 1919. It was divided in three districts (Bezirke in German): The largest urban areas in Alsace-Lorraine at the 1910 census were: The modern history of Alsace-Lorraine was largely influenced by the rivalry between French and German nationalism. Blottie entre le massif vosgien à l’ouest et le Rhin qui forme une frontière naturelle entre la France et l’Allemagne à l’est, l’Alsace étonne ses visiteurs par … Alsace hotels: low rates, no booking fees, no cancellation fees. This territory was retroceded to France in 1919 after World War I, was ceded again to Germany in 1940 during World War II, and was again retroceded to France in 1945. Corrections? While the soviet councils disbanded themselves with the departure of the German troops between November 11 and 17,[15] the arrival of the French Army stabilized the situation: French troops put the region under occupatio bellica and entered Strasbourg on November 21. Although it was effectively led by Prussia, the new German Empire was a decentralized federal state. Maplandia.com in partnership with Booking.com offers highly competitive rates for all types of hotels in Alsace, from affordable family hotels to the most luxurious ones. Welcome to your A La Carte private France Tour of Alsace, Lorraine, Strasbourg. In 2016 the région of Alsace was merged with Lorraine and Champagne-Ardenne as part of a national plan to increase bureaucratic efficiency. Service de la carte géologique d'Alsace et de Lorraine. Many others fought in Normandy against the Allies as the malgré-nous of the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich, some of which were involved in the Oradour sur Glane and Tulle war crimes. This comprised about one third of the population of Alsace and Moselle, or about 600,000 residents. [21] Through a series of laws which individually seemed minor, Berlin took de facto control of Alsace-Lorraine, and Alsatians-Lorrainians could be drafted into the German Army. ), This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 23:10. Indisponibil . Omissions? [12] But in order to spare them possible confrontations with relatives in France but also to avoid any desertion from the Alsatian soldiers to the French army,[note 5][13] German Army draftees from Alsace-Lorraine were sent mainly to the Eastern front, or the Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In Metz, French street names, which had been displayed in French and German, were suppressed in January 1915. Apr 1, 2016 - It was as a result of the Franco-Prussian War that on May 10, 1871 France was first forced to surrender Alsace and part of Lorraine to Germany. From a military perspective, by early 1870s standards, shifting the frontier away from the Rhine would give the Germans a strategic buffer against feared future French attacks. Transport gratuit peste 150 de lei. Taste authentic French wine and cheese in the mountains then visit historic sites in Strasbourg, Colmar, Largarde and many more. Booking.com, being established in 1996, is longtime Europe’s leader in online hotel reservations. Jacques Fortier, « La chute de l'Empire ». Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The loss of Alsace-Lorraine was a major cause of anti-German feeling in France in the period from 1871 to 1914. A woman at the market, who probably was unaware that ", One of the famous case was the desertion from all the Alsatian soldiers from their German battalion on the eve of the Verdun offensive to warn the French army from the imminent attack. [4] Some German industrialists did not want the competition from Alsatian industries, such as the cloth makers who would be exposed to competition from the sizeable industry in Mulhouse. That small francophone areas were affected, was used in France to denounce the new border as hypocrisy, since Germany had justified the annexation on linguistic grounds. Because of its ancient German associations and because of its large German-speaking population, Alsace-Lorraine was incorporated into the German Empire after France’s defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71). In French foreign policy, the demand for the return of Alsace and Lorraine faded in importance after 1880 with the decline of the monarchist element. The transfer was controversial even among the Germans: The German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, was initially opposed to it, as he thought (correctly) it would engender permanent French enmity toward Germany. France long sought to attain and then preserve what it considered to be its "natural boundaries", which were the Pyrenees to the southwest, the Alps to the southeast, and the Rhine River to the northeast. (Today, the region is called "Bas Rhin" [Lower Rhine] in France.) The area of Belfort became a special status area and was not reintegrated into Haut-Rhin in 1919 but instead was made a full-status département in 1922 under the name Territoire-de-Belfort. Un peu de géographie sur L’Aslace-Lorraine Ancienne carte Alsace-Lorraine – ©CC0 Domaine public L’Alsace. However, the Roman Catholic dioceses of Metz and of Strasbourg became exempt jurisdictions. 18/12/2020 Laisser un commentaire Laisser un commentaire Alsace - Lorraine Pain d'épice fra Alsace. Beginning in 1942, people from Alsace and Moselle were made German citizens by decree of the Nazi government.[22]. During the occupation, Moselle was integrated into a Reichsgau named Westmark and Alsace was amalgamated with Baden. When the World War broke out in 1914, recovery of the two lost provinces became the top French war goal. [18][19], Since German legislation that repressed homosexuality applied to Alsace-Moselle, homosexuals were deported. It originally was part of the Holy Roman Empire, but gradually became part of France from 1552 to 1798, by way of conquest and diplomatic compromises. Thousands of residents who considered themselves French emigrated during this period. (The term actually appeared after World War I. The French government’s attempts to rapidly assimilate Alsace-Lorraine met with problems, however, especially in France’s plans to substitute state-run schools for the region’s traditional church schools and in its attempts to suppress German newspapers (German being the written language of 75 percent of the inhabitants). Memories of the Napoleonic Wars were still fresh in the 1870s. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Alsace-Lorraine, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Alsace-Lorraine, Alsace-Lorraine - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). 1771 (dated) 13 x 17.5 in (33.02 x 44.45 cm) 1 : 930000. Alsace-Lorraine Two provinces located in northeastern France that share a border with Germany. The 'Roseraie de Saverne' is a beautiful rose garden with around 1500 different species, located in Saverne, the City of Roses. Both Germanic and Romance dialects were traditionally spoken in Alsace-Lorraine before the 20th century. This map was created by a user. Klein, Detmar. formed in 1910 as a merger of all leftist liberal parties. Preț valabil exclusiv online! Seager, Frederic H. "The Alsace-Lorraine Question in France, 1871-1914." Jean-Noël Grandhomme, « Le retour de l'Alsace-Lorraine », Eberhard Jäckel, « L'annexion déguisée », dans, Union of Protestant Churches of Alsace and Lorraine, Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, Arrondissement of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins, French occupation of large areas of Germany, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Independent Regional Party for Alsace-Lorraine, Les députés "protestataires" d'Alsace-Lorraine, "Tabellarische Geschichte Elsaß-Lothringens / Französische Besatzung (1918-1940)", "To Protect, Defend and inform: The Evacuation of the German-French Border Region During the Second World War", "Evacuation, Phony War and Collapse, May-June 1940", "The Deportation of People From Alsace and Moselle", "Verwaltungsgeschichte Elsaß-Lothringen 1871–1919", http://www.geocities.com/bfel/geschichte5b.html, https://web.archive.org/web/20090730200508/http://geocities.com/CapitolHill/Rotunda/2209/Alsace_Lorraine.html, France, Germany and the Struggle for the War-making Natural Resources of the Rhineland, Annuary of Cultur and Artists from Elsass-Lothringen, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), Protestant Church of the Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alsace-Lorraine&oldid=991222333, States and territories established in 1871, States and territories disestablished in 1918, Articles containing Alemannic German-language text, Articles containing Luxembourgish-language text, Articles needing additional references from April 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from October 2020, Articles needing additional references from March 2017, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, +0.58% population growth per year during 1875–1910.